[EBOOK READ] Crimea The Last Crusade Author Orlando Figes

Or this in its sophisticated defensive engineering at Sevastopol which kept the allies at bay for many months and ground their armies to a halt Russian field pieces and artillery were also up to standard during the war and performed well against the allies giving as good as they got during bombardments The fall of Sevastopol marked the end of the war as Russia diplomatically isolated and humiliated by its loss as well as recently facing the death of Tsar Nicholas I was willing to seek peace The French were also craving an end to hostilities Popular opinion in France for the war was stagnant to hostile and rumors of coup attempts began to alarm Emperor Napoleon French rapprochement with Russia was swift and their mutual hostility with Austria began to transcend even the war itself Peace came in Paris with Russia ceding a chunk of Bessarabia to the Ottomans the Black Sea domination by Russian fleets coming to and end and a mutual guarantee of the rights of Christians in the Ottoman Empire signed by all parties at the table Russia lost some territory and its valuable hold over the Ottoman Empire However Russia was able to gain back all it had lost and within about 20 ears of the wars conclusion Unrest and reprisal between Christian and Muslim communities in the Ottoman Empire led to the collapse of good will to the Porte by Western powers and allowed Russia to orchestrate the independence of Bulgaria Serbia Montenegro and Romania from the Ottomans with a subseuent return of Bessarabian territories lost in the war The growing power of PrussiaGermany and its defeat of Austria and France in land wars gave way to an agreement between Austria Germany and Russia renouncing the Black Sea clauses in the peace treaty Russia also stepped up its game in the Caucus defeating rebels in the region and pushing back British influence in Persia Even so the dominance of Russia in European affairs had ended The Concert of Europe alliance between Austria and Russia was broken and never repaired French and British interests would remain aligned and Russia would ultimately lose the game in the Ottoman Empire to the two Western powers interests Russia held some sway in the Balkan s but these fractious states would drag Russia into many dangerous wars leading ultimately to the collapse of the Russian Empire after WWI The Crimean War had minor territorial conseuences but massive conseuences for the peace and stability of EuropeFiges has written an interesting and in depth account of the war moving past legends like the Light Brigade and Florence Nightingale although he talks about them and instead examines the war through the eyes of the various belligerents in the war The diplomatic and religious precursors to the war are examined as well as the opening maneuvers and the immediate and future conseuences Battles are described in blow by blow accounts examining maneuvers by each army defensive lines sorties and charges and so on in an in depth look at the battles The logistical considerations or lack thereof are examined The politics and diplomacy behind the war are looked at in depth This is a really well written account of the war and features good criticism great analysis and an interesting comparison of perspective between the belligerents I had some small concerns about sourcing in a few of the chapters but aside from this this is a great history book and one worth a read for those interested in European history from this era as well as those looking for a good chunky military history book A great read and easily recommended to history buffs This book began rather slowly for me but I soon became engrossed in Figes narrative of this somewhat forgotten war which claimed so many lives for so little I have always been fascinated by the Crimean War and this book added to my knowledge as the author had access to sources

"not previously available "
previously available other authors It was a war of incompetent leadership missed opportunities outdated military tactics and rampant disease Much mystiue and legend regarding the war has grown over the ears based solely on the suicidal charge of the Light Brigade a perfect example of the miscommunication and lack of military leadership so prevalent in the Crimea The author gives eual attention to the battles of Inkerman the river Alma and the siege of Sevastopol which were of much importance than the infamous charge Highly recommended for the lover of military history Excellent This is actually three books The first one up to p 140 or so is about the origins of the Crimean war At the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem Catholic and Orthodox Christians would fight each other to the death for the right to say be the first to celebrate the Easter Mass Disingenuously Nicholas I of Russia used a concern for the Orthodox living under Turkish rule as an opportunity for imperialist expansion He really wanted to partition Turkey Russophobic Britain was having none of it They believed not without reason that Russia wanted India This pushed them into an alliance with France to challenge Russia when it occupied the Danubian Principalities Ottoman territoryThe second book is an account of the conflict itself which was brutal and marked by an appalling lack of planning and leadership on all but the French side For the British it devolves to the point of travesty The incompetence of British officers leaves one astonished gaping For example no provision was made for the Crimea s gaping For example no provision was made for the Crimea s winter because British leaders thought it would be a short campaign When the harsh weather came the ensuing tragedy had to make headlines in London before asses were gotten in gear and the appropriate supplies made available By then of course it was too late for the first winter The tommies in their made for summer tents soaked through for months at a time died in their thousandsThe third and final book is on the aftermath of the war How it affected the principal combatants France Britain Russia Turkey economically and politically Russia s humiliating loss became a significant factor in her decision to free the serfs s humiliating loss became a significant factor in her decision to free the serfs can t after all fight with an army of slaves there s a certain problem of motivation Tolstoy was at the Siege of Sevastopol and his comments taken from Sevastopal Sketches as well as his letters deepen the book in surprising ways The first great battle fought in the fog at Balaclava is a breathtaking read What I liked most was the way the book served as a linking narrative for me to many events I had already read about from Napoleon s Retreat from Moscow in 1812 through World War II Written in simple declarative prose there is little or no use of tedious novelistic devices I warmly recommend The Crimean War Now if ou would be so kind please sign the Charter for Compassion at Peace ba. Dreams of religious salvation; from the ordinary soldiers and nurses on the battlefields to the women and children in towns under siegeOriginal magisterial alive with voices of the time The Crimean War is a historical tour de force whose depiction of ethnic cleansing and the West's relations with the Muslim world resonates with contemporary overtones At once a rigorous original study and a sweeping panoramic narrative The Crimean War is the definitive account of the war that mapped the terrain for today's wor.
Afterwards Lorde, A: Zami: A New Spelling of my Name Her Every Fear Her Every Fear قصص الأنبياء للأطفال My Hundred Children
E first to carry out the rituals at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre one of the holiest places in Christendom standing on the spot where Jesus is said to have been crucifiedThat Friday was to be anything but good The Catholics arrived only to find that the Greeks were there first A fight broke out priest against priest soon to be joined by monks and pilgrims from the respective camps People fought not just with fists but anything they could get a hold of crucifixes candlesticks chalices lamps and incense burners Wood was torn from the sacred shrines and used as clubs Knives and pistols were smuggled into the church By the time the Mehemet Pasha the Ottoman governor of Jerusalem had restored order forty The Crimean War A History by Orlando Figes is a large history of the Crimean War between Russia on one side and France Britain and the Ottoman Empire on the other The war began over religious scuffling between Catholic and Greek Orthodox pilgrims in Jerusalem then part of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman s had recently passed policy favourable to Catholic pilgrims at the expense of Orthodox pilgrims in the city with religious rights and priorities being granted to Catholic churches at the behest of the French government Previously Russia had imposed similar measures on the Ottoman government for their pilgrims and this tit for tat led to a strong response by the Russian government An ultimatum was sent and Russian troops sent into the Danubian principalities Wallachia and Moldova which were Romanian states under Ottoman suzerainty France and Britain were both alarmed by this move and sent their backing to the Ottoman government Britain was uite concerned with growing Russian power in the region and was afraid that the balance of power would shift to Russia on the continent France under the newly crowned Emperor Napoleon III needed a strong military showing to gain prestige at home and uell growing unrest within the armyRussia s aims were many First they wished to gain the status of Protector of the Orthodox in the Ottoman Empire in order to encourage an end to anti Christian policies in the Porte and give the Russian s a means to meddle in internal Ottoman affairs The Russians also had pan Slavic intentions and were interested in seeing nation states created in Serbia Bulgaria and Romania all then under Ottoman control Russia s borders with the Ottoman s were also contested in the Caucus mountains and in Bessarabia in RomaniaMoldova Russia did not believe that Britain would join in the hostilities and was also counting on the support of Austria their long time ally Russia had made diplomatic maneuvers in Britain that seemed to suppose an indifferent response from the British but in fact Russophobes had become influential in the government and Britain sided strongly with the Ottomans The first maneuvers of the war were in Romania but the pan Slavic elements of the early war disuieted the Austrian government which had Slavic populations in Croatia and Bohemia The Austrian government did not join the Russian war and even mobilized troops to threaten the Russians into a withdrawal from the Danubian principalities At this point in the war the Russians also used their Black Sea fleet to bombard the Turkish coast and destroyed the city of Sinope The Turks encouraged an uprising by Muslim tribes in the Circassian and Caucus regions of Russia and sent men and material in support The other allies France and Britain began to debate plans for attack Sorties into the Baltic to encourage the Swedes to join the war against Russia and toward St Petersburg were rejected as too dangerous Marching a land army into Poland to support a Polish uprising was strongly favoured by the French government but ultimately rejected as it would have had a hostile reaction in Prussia and Austria both states with their own Polish minorities The Crimea was the region chosen This valuable Austria both states with their own Polish minorities The Crimea was the region chosen This valuable allowed Russia to control Black Sea trade and put pressure on the Ottoman government due to its important position in the Black Sea trading routes and its transportation capacities to Constantinople If Britain and France could take the region from Russia this valuable spot could be shaved off the Russian Empire and reduce its power in the region and weaken it as a whole War aims were grand from the allies who wanted nothing than the removal of Russian influence from Western Europe Allied troops landed in the Crimea and uickly engaged the Russians in the Battle of Alma in which the allies handed the Russian s their first defeat However allied mismanagement of the war would become clear soon after The allies then settled in for the Siege of Sevastopol which would last many months and lead to thousands upon thousands of allied and Russian deaths These deaths were the result of tragic mismanagement of logistics and supplies most notably from the British Greatcoats were not supplied to troops in the winter tents were not weather proof food was scarce and of poor uality and hospital ships were incompetently euipped to the point of malicious neglect The British public learned of these tidings through the press and both mobilized in support of the troops and brought down the British government in support of a rational approach to the war #British performance in the Crimean War was notably lacking and the shortcomings encouraged a modernization of the army toward WWI France #performance in the Crimean War was notably lacking and the shortcomings encouraged a modernization of the army toward WWI France from shortcomings as well but the French army was much better euipped during the war The French paved roads from the landing sight to the French camps around Sevastopol and the French army was well supplied with winter gear food and luxuries French rifles were also far superior to Russian arms during the war and could outpace the Russian s by hundreds of meters The French like the Russians and British fell short in warfare The Crimean War saw the eclipse of cavalry as a valuable fighting unit with notable massacres of British and French cavalry units a commonality in early skirmishes Siege works trenches and artillery as well as infantry bayonet charges against fortified trench lines was the common maneuver during the war leading to high casualties on both sides These maneuvers were the per cursors of trench warfare in the early twentieth century Russia s military was far behind in terms of military technology in the 1850 s It had peaked during the defeat of Napoleon in 1812 and had done little to improve since then Russian rifles were horribly incompetent during the war and a similar incompetency beset the Russian high command as that of the allies Russian casualties were massive during the war as generals changed plans mid maneuver battalion commanders ignored orders and Russian troops struggled to survive with little supplies Russia made up Ssia and the West; that it set in motion the conflicts that would dominate the century to comeIn this masterly history Orlando Figes reconstructs the first full conflagration of modernity a global industrialized struggle fought with unusual ferocity and incompetence Drawing on untapped Russian and Ottoman as well as European sources Figes vividly depicts the world at war from the palaces of St Petersburg to the holy sites of Jerusalem; from the oung Tolstoy reporting in Sevastopol to Tsar Nicolas haunted by.

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Crimea The Last Crusade